International European Tribunal
Concerning the NATO War against Yugoslavia
June 3, 2000:
At the conclusion of two days of hearing, with testimony presented by various witnesses from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia1) and numerous international experts2) and based upon the material derived from 2 previous hearings - Oct. 1999 in Berlin and April 2000 in Hamburg - the jury of this International European Tribunal has reached the following verdict.
The heads of governments and the foreign and defense ministers of the NATO
member states3), the commanding officials of NATO4), the
members of the Federal Parliament of the Federal Republic of Germany, who voted
in favor of the participation of the German armed forces in the military
intervention against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia5),
have been found guilty of serious violations of International Law
through the military aggression carried out against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from March 24, to June 10, 1999.
1) The aggression is a violation of the absolute prohibition of the use of force as formulated in the UN Charter, Art. 2 Nr. 4, in connection with interdiction of aggression as contained in the UN General Assembly (G.A.) Resolution 3314 (XXIX) (14. Dec. 1974), as well as a violation of the territorial sovereignty of a sovereign state, as formulated in Art. 2 number 4 of the UN Charter in connection with the interdiction of the violation of the territorial integrity and the political independence of a state as laid out in the Declaration of International Principles for Friendly Relations and Cooperation between States in the spirit of the Charter of the United Nations, Resolution of the UN G.A. 2625 (XXV) (24. Oct. 1970) and Art. 2 Statutes of the International European Tribunal.
Without themselves having been attacked by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and while consciously and deliberately circumventing a Security Council mandate, as called for in Art. 39, and 42, 48 of the UN Charter, NATO states carried out military aggression against a sovereign state. This constitutes a serious violation of prevailing, compulsory International Law.
Nor was this aggression to be justified as being - as the Federal Republic of Germany and other NATO member states allege - an act of emergency aid through a so-called humanitarian intervention. Aside from the fact that in prevailing International Law emergency aid to a state, victim of aggression, exists only in the framework of self-defense in the context of Art. 51 of the UN Charter, which does not apply in the present case, in the opinion of this Tribunal, formed after intensive examination of the evidence and expert testimony presented here, that even the factual prerequisites for such an "humanitarian intervention" are lacking.
The Tribunal reached the conviction, that a humanitarian catastrophe, as was invoked particularly by the German ministers Fischer and Scharping, never existed. The instrumentalization of the Holocaust through the insinuation of a genocide comparable to what took place in Auschwitz concentration camp, as was done by the German Foreign Minister, is viewed by this Tribunal as being highly irresponsible and disgraceful behavior. It is true that the civil war in Kosovo, that ignited between the separatist movement of the KLA and the police and army of Yugoslavia, led to a large number of casualties on both sides, led to the destruction of houses and villages, to the displacement of people - Albanians, as well as Serbs, Croats, Romany and members of other ethnic groups - and to serious human rights violations. As deplorable as this is, the plight of these victims does not justify the superlative characterization of the situation as being a "humanitarian catastrophe". NATO and its member governments stand exposed for their innumerable exaggerations, dramatizations and falsifications.
But even if this Tribunal would assume — which it does not — that a "humanitarian catastrophe" had existed in the years 1998, 1999, preceding the bombing, this would not have legitimated a military intervention as was carried out by NATO. In the customs of states, from which international common law has evolved, as well as in the vast majority of international legal opinion, humanitarian intervention is not recognized as an institution legitimating an exemption from the absolute prohibition of the use of force. The verdict handed down by the World Court in The Hague in the lawsuit Nicaragua vs. the United States on 27 June 1986 has lost nothing of its validity concerning "humanitarian interventions": "The use of force could not be the appropriate method to monitor or ensure respect for human rights. With regard to the steps actually taken, the protection of human rights, a strictly humanitarian objective, cannot be compatible with the mining of ports, the destruction of oil installations, (...). The Court concludes that the argument derived from the preservation of human rights in Nicaragua cannot afford a legal justification for the conduct of the United States." (ICJ Rep. 1986 §268) In spite of what some would have us believe, this standpoint of international law prevails.
Even if "humanitarian intervention" could be admitted as a legitimate exemption from the absolute prohibition of the use of force, - which this Tribunal does not do — one cannot overlook the fact that NATO not only has failed to attain its proclaimed goal, the re-establishment of acceptable conditions for human rights, but has dramatically deteriorated the already precarious situation. The number of dead, of wounded and of those robbed of all their possessions was multiplied through the initiation of the bombing campaign. For this suffering of the Yugoslavian people, NATO alone bears full responsibility in accordance with Art. 3, IV Hague Convention concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, 18 October 1907.
2) The bombing of Yugoslavia violated even the NATO Treaty itself. Art. 5 stipulates that NATO's exclusive function is defense, not military interventions in regions of civil war and interstate strife. This responsibility lies solely within the framework of the powers granted the UN Security Council, particularly through Chapter 7 of the UN Charter. Art. 7 of the NATO Treaty explicitly recognizes this responsibility of the Security Council. For the prevention or subsequent pacification of crisis regions, states have a multitude of non-violent political and economic instruments at their disposal within the frameworks of the UN and OSCE. They were deliberately circumvented. The NATO Treaty does not mandate military intervention outside of the defense of the territorial boundaries of the alliance.
3) Beyond these, particularly the Federal German Republic is guilty of violating the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany "4 + 2 Treaty" of 12 Sept. 1990, in which it committed itself that only peace "will emanate from German territory". Both governments - the former Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic - in proclaiming their unification also declared in Art. 2 that "the United Germany will never employ any of its weapons except in accordance with its constitution and the Charter of the United Nations." Through its substantial participation in the war against Yugoslavia, the FRG consciously violated these obligations.
4) The Tribunal is also of the opinion that the accusations concerning the German Government's violations of constitutional (particularly Art. 26 GG) and penal law (§ 80 StGB.) were confirmed. There are also good grounds for presuming violations of martial law by the German military. But in accordance with the limitations imposed by its Statutes, this Tribunal cannot pronounce a verdict concerning these violations. It rather transmits these questions for subsequent investigations and Tribunals to the legal systems of all participating nations and appeal for a continuation of the search for the truth concerning this war.
5) This Tribunal would like to express its apprehension that the war against Yugoslavia has played a role in the formulation of NATO's new strategic concept in April 1999, attaining a geostrategic significance extending far beyond the Balkans and Eurasia to become a model for future military interventions in the name of a new world order. To thwart the globalization of these military imperial instruments, it is absolutely necessary to further examine the prerequisites, objectives and consequences of the war against Yugoslavia and simultaneously draw attention to these possible geostrategic perspectives.
6) After hearing extensive testimony of witnesses and experts, the Tribunal has arrived at the conviction that the methodology of warfare employed by the defendants also constituted serious and repeated violations of international humanitarian law, as spelled out in the Statutes of this Tribunal based upon the Hague and Geneva Conventions. The Tribunal intensively deliberated the question of whether the parliamentarians of the Federal German Parliament bare the same responsibility for the violations of international law in how the war was waged, as those members of government administrations, who had ordered the expansion of the bombing from the targeting of purely military objects to include civilian targets, as provided for in the so-called 3-phase plan. The members of the Tribunal could not ignore the fact, that even though the parliamentarians had not directly participated in deciding how the war would be waged, they took no initiative to halt the gross violations of international law, as the consequences of the bombing campaign became evident.
The Tribunal could not be convinced by NATO and its governments' defense, that the heavy damages of civilian objects were only unintentional collateral damages. All witnesses and experts confirm that the hospitals, villages or the RTS radio station were attacked repeatedly, which, due to the repeatedly praised precision of the bombs and guided missiles, excludes the element of error. The prosecution presented statements of high-ranking military and government representatives, sufficient to prove a strategic plan to destroy civil structures, in order to pressure the population into opposing, in one way or another, the Milosevic administration. Solely in the case of the bombardment of the Dragisa Misovic Hospital Complex in Belgrade (Point 3 of the indictment) could no evidence be presented substantiating repeated bombing attacks. Other eye witnesses and expert witnesses furnished evidence to the fact that several hospitals in various cities, including Belgrade had suffered repeated bombing attacks.
The Tribunal has also arrived at the conclusion, that none of the civilian targets listed in the indictment or mentioned by the experts and witnesses housed or were in the vicinity of military establishments. In only one case, was it reported that a police academy was at a distance of 6-800 meters, but this hospital in question, was clearly discernible - even from the air - through the Red Cross symbol.
The proceedings have led to the conclusion that the prosecution's selection of attacked civilian targets and persons, are only exemplary for a war strategy that evidently in its third stage, systematically attempted to implicate the civil population in order to reach its political goal: the overthrow of the government of President Milosevic. This war strategy is in clear violation of the central norms of the IV Geneva Convention concerning the protection of civilians in times of war (12. Aug. 1949) and its First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Conventions (8. June 1977) (Art. 5a, b, Statute of the International European Tribunal).
7) The use of depleted uranium and so called cluster bombs constitutes a particularly serious violation. According to recent reports, NATO is said to have dropped approximately 31,000 bombs over Yugoslavia leaving behind 10 tons of depleted uranium residue. Experience with the United States' and Great Britain's deployment of this material in Iraq, shows that this weapon constitutes a time bomb of incalculable health impairment. Such weapons are inadmissible under terms of the prohibition of weapons inflicting superfluous injury and unnecessary and long term suffering as well as the prohibition of weapons of indiscriminate destruction. The use of these weapons represents a grave violation of international humanitarian law as prescribed by the First Additional Protocol to the Geneva Convention (Art. 35. ff. I and Art. 48 ff,; Additional Protocol I; Geneva Protocol for the Prohibition of Poisonous Gases and Bacteriological Methods of Warfare (17. June 1925); Art. 5 and 5c of the Statutes of the International European Tribunal). The same applies to the so-called cluster bombs - who's unexploded remnants left on the ground have the effect of landmines - are also prohibited. Both of these weapons fall supplementary under the prohibition of weapons of indiscriminate destruction and particularly cruel weapons (Art. 51 First Additional Protocol, Art. 5b, j, k, Statutes of the International European Tribunal).
8) The aggression carried out against the radio/television station RTS represents not only a forbidden attack against a civilian installation - which, as confirmed by witness testimony, was never used for military communications - but also an infringement upon the freedom of information. This was one of those targets which, as the bombing continued, was pushed ever higher on NATO's scale of priorities, not only in order the Yugoslav viewers and listeners, but also to deprive the viewers and listeners outside Yugoslavia of the information broadcast by the Yugoslav government. The question of the objectivity of the content of this information is, in this respect, of no importance. In the final analysis the answer would hardly be different when raised concerning NATO's information and broadcasts from NATO states.
9) The Tribunal is well aware that the examples presented by the prosecution and those supplemented during the course of these proceedings, represent only a segment of the war scenario, that evolved during the 78 days of bombardment, which with growing awareness of its failure, distanced itself ever further from the norms of humanitarian international law, until finally placing Might over Right. That NATO propaganda could seduce so many into passive - even active - support for this lawless war, is a particularly sad aspect. We cannot avoid mentioning that several of Yugoslavia's neighboring states, such as Macedonia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina and others by granting over-flight rights, by placing bases and other facilities at the disposal of the aggressors, have made themselves guilty of at least aiding and abetting these violations.
10) These Tribunal proceedings must not be allowed to constitute a conclusion to efforts to learn the truth about that war against Yugoslavia. The problems that brought war to the entire region, are far too serious and remain completely unresolved. It is imperative not only that the physical and material damage, but also the psychological wounds, the humiliation, be further researched and unambiguously exposed to the public. This war must not be permitted to become a model for a new world order. We must make it absolutely clear to politicians and the military, that with warfare neither human rights nor civilization can be saved, that warfare can no longer be an instrument of politics.
Berlin, June 3, 2000
Prof. Dr. Norman Paech (Germany) - President
Prof. Dr. Claudia von Werlhof (Austria) - Vice President
Wolfgang Schulz (Germany) - Tribunal Secretary
Dr. Reszö Banyasz (Hungary)
Prof. Dr. Svetomir Skaric (Macedonia)
Paolo Pioppi (Italy)
Dr. Barbara Krygier (Poland)
Lea Launokari (Finland)
Heinz Moll (Switzerland)
Dr. Stanislav Patejdl (Czech Republic)
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Richter (Germany)
Dr. Wilja Nikolajewitsch Romastschenko (Ukraine)
Laura von Wimmersperg (Germany)
Ulrich Dost, (Germany)
Pierre Kaldor (France)
Prof. Dr. Velko Valkanoff (Bulgaria)
Valentina Strauss (Russia)
1. The following states in their functions as members of both the United Nations and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (4. April 1949), represented through their heads of state, their foreign and defense ministers:
a) the USA,
represented by: William J. Clinton, Madeleine Albright, William Cohen
b) the Federal Republic of Germany,
represented by: Gerhard Schröder, Joseph Fischer, Rudolf Scharping
c) the United Kingdom,
represented by: Tony Blair, Robin Cook, George Robertson
represented by: Jacques Chirac, Hubert Védrine, Alain Richard
represented by: Jean-Luc Dehaene, B. Derycke, J.-P. Poncelet
represented by: A. Guterres, Jaime Jose Matos da Gama, V. Simao
represented by: D’Alema, Lamberto Dini, C. Scognamiglio
represented by: J. M. Aznar, Abel Matutes, Eduardo Serra Rexach
represented by: Jean Chrétien, Lloyd Axworthy, Arthur Eggleton
represented by: Willem Kok, Jozias van Aartsen, Frank de Grave
represented by: P. N. Rassmussen, Niels Helveg Petersen, Hans Haekkerup
represented by: K. Simitis, George Panpandreou, Akis Tsohatzopoulus
represented by: D. Oddson, Halldor Asgrimsson, Gunnar Palson
represented by: J.-C. Juncker, J. Poos, Alex Bodry
represented by: K. M. Bonderik, K. Vollebaek, D.-J. Fjaervoll
represented by: J. Buzek, Bronislaw Geremek, Janusz Onyszkiewicz
q) Czech Republic
represented by: Milos Zeman, Jan Kavan, Vladimir Verchy
represented by: E. Ecevit, Ismail Cem, H. S. Turk
represented by Viktor Orban, János Martony, Janos Szabo
2. following members of the German Federal Parliament:
MPs of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
Brigitte Adler, Gerd Andres, Robert Antretter, Rainer Arnold, Hermann Bachmaier, Ernst Bahr, Doris Barnett, Dr. Hans-Peter Bartels, Eckhardt Barthel (Berlin), Gerd Bauer, Ingrid Becker-Inglau, Wolfgang Behrendt, Dr. Axel Berg, Hans Berger, Hans-Werner Bertl, Friedhelm Julius Beucher, Petra Bierwirth, Rudolf Bindig, Kurt Bodewig, Klaus Brandner, Anni Brandt-Elsweier, Willi Brase, Tilo Braune, Dr. Eberhard Brecht, Rainer Brinkmann (Detmold), Bernhard Brinkmann (Hildesheim), Hans-Günter Bruckmann, Edelgard Buhlmahn, Ursula Burchardt, Dr. Michael Bürsch, Hans Büttner (Ingolstadt), Hans Martin Bury, Marion Caspers-Merk, Wolf-Michael Catenhusen, Peter Conradi, Dr. Herta Däubler-Gmelin, Christel Deichmann, Karl Diller, Peter Dreßen, Rudolf Dreßler, Detlef Dzembritzki, Dieter Dzewas, Dr. Peter Eckardt, Sebastian Edathy, Ludwig Eich, Marga Elser, Peter Enders, Gernot Erler, Petra Ernstberger, Annette Faße, Elke Ferner, Lothar Fischer (Homburg), Gabriele Fograscher, Iris Follak, Eva Folta, Norbert Formanski, Rainer Fornahl, Hans Forster, Dagmar Freitag, Peter Friedrich (Altenburg), Lilo Friedrich (Mettmann), Harald Friese, Anke Fuchs (Köln), Arne Fuhrmann, Monika Ganseforth, Konrad Gilges, Iris Gleicke, Günter Gloser, Uwe Göllner, Renate Gradistanac, Günter Graf (Friesoythe), Angelika Graf (Rosenheim), Dieter Grasedieck, Monika Griefahn, Achim Großmann, Wolfgang Grotthaus, Karl-Hermann Haack (Extertal), Hans-Joachim Hacker, Klaus Hagemann, Manfred Hampel, Christel Hanewinckel, Alfred Hartenbach, Klaus Hasenfratz, Dr. Ingomar Hauchler, Nina Hauer, Hubertus Heil, Dieter Heistermann, Reinhold Hemker, Frank Hempel, Dr. Barbara Hendricks, Gustav Herzog, Monika Heubaum, Reinhold Hiller (Lübeck), Stephan Hilsberg, Gerd Höfer, Jelena Hoffmann (Chemnitz), Walter Hoffmann (Darmstadt), Iris Hoffmann (Wismar), Frank Hofmann (Volkach), Ingrid Holzhüter, Erwin Horn, Eike Hovermann, Christel Humme, Lothar Ibrügger, Wolfgang Ilte, Barbara Imhof, Brunhilde Irber, Gabriele Iwersen, Renate Jäger, Jann-Peter Janssen, Ilse Janz, Dr. Uwe Jens, Volker Jung (Düsseldorf), Johannes Kahrs, Ulrich Kasparick, Sabine Kaspereit, Susanne Kastner, Ernst Kastning, Hans-Peter Kemper, Klaus Kirschner, Marianne Klappert, Siegrun Klemmer, Hans-Ulrich Klose, Dr. Hans-Hinrich Knaape, Walter Kolbow, Fritz Rudolf Körper, Karin Kortmann, Anette Kramme, Nicolette Kressl, Volker Kröning, Thomas Krüger, Angelika Krüger-Leißner, Horst Kubatschka, Ernst Küchler, Eckart Kuhlwein, Helga Kühn-Mengel, Ute Kumpf, Dr. Uwe Küster, Werner Labsch, Oskar Lafontaine, Christine Lambrecht, Brigitte Lange, Christian Lange (Backnang), Detlev von Larcher, Christine Lehder, Waltraud Lehn, Robert Leidinger, Klaus Lennartz, Dr. Elke Leonhard, Eckhart Lewering, Götz-Peter Lohmann (Neubrandenburg), Klaus Lohmann (Witten), Erika Lotz, Dr. Christine Lucyga, Dieter Maaß (Herne), Winfried Mante, Dirk Manzewski, Tobias Marhold, Lothar Mark, Dorle Marx, Ulrike Mascher, Christoph Matschie, Ingrid Matthäus-Maier, Heide Mattischeck, Markus Meckel, Ulrike Mehl, Ulrike Merten, Herbert Meißner, Angelika Mertens, Dr. Jürgen Meyer (Ulm), Ursula Mogg, Christoph Moosbauer, Siegmar Mosdorf, Michael Müller (Düsseldorf), Jutta Müller (Völklingen), Christian Müller (Zittau), Franz Müntefering, Andrea Nahles, Volker Neumann (Bramsche), Gerhard Neumann (Gotha), Dr. Edith Niehuis, Dr. Rolf Niese, Dietmar Nietan, Günter Oesinghaus, Eckhard Ohl, Leyla Onur, Manfred Opel, Holger Ortel, Adolf Ostertag, Kurt Palis, Albrecht Papenroth, Dr. Willfried Penner, Dr. Martin Pfaff, Georg Pfannenstein, Johannes Pflug, Dr. Eckhart Pick ,Joachim Poß, Rudolf Purps, Hermann Rappe (Hildesheim), Karin Rehbock-Zureich, Margot von Renesse, Bernd Reuter, Dr. Edelbert Richter, Reinhold Robbe, Dr. Ernst Dieter Rossmann, Michael Roth (Heringen), Birgit Roth (Speyer), Gerhard Rübenkönig, Thomas Sauer, Dr. Hansjörg Schäfer, Gudrun Schaich-Walch, Dieter Schanz, Rudolf Scharping, Bernd Scheelen, Dr. Hermann Scheer, Siegfried Scheffler, Horst Schild, Otto Schily, Dieter Schloten, Günter Schluckebier, Horst Schmidbauer (Nürnberg), Ulla Schmidt (Aachen), Silvia Schmidt (Eisleben), Dagmar Schmidt (Meschede), Wilhelm Schmidt (Salzgitter), Regina Schmidt-Zadel, Heinz Schmitt (Berg), Carsten Schneider, Dr. Emil Schnell, Walter Schöler, Olaf Scholz, Karsten Schönfeld, Fritz Schösser, Ottmar Schreiner, Gerhard Schröder, Gisela Schröter, Dr. Mathias Schubert, Richard Schuhmann (Delitzsch), Brigitte Schulte (Hameln), Reinhard Schultz (Everswinkel), Volkmar Schultz (Köln), Ilse Schumann, Ewald Schurer, Dr. R. Werner Schuster, Dietmar Schütz (Oldenburg), Dr. Angelica Schwall-Düren, Ernst Schwanhold, Rolf Schwanitz, Bodo Seidenthal, Lisa Seuster, Erika Simm, Johannes Singer, Dr. Cornelie Sonntag-Wolgast, Wieland Sorge, Wolfgang Spanier, Dr. Margrit Spielmann, Jörg-Otto Spiller, Dr. Ditmar Staffelt, Antje-Marie Stehen, Ludwig Stiegler, Rolf Stöckel, Rita Streb-Hesse, Dr. Peter Struck, Joachim Stünker, Joachim Tappe, Jörg Tauss, Dr. Bodo Teichmann, Jella Teuchner, Dr. Gerald Thalheim, Wolfgang Thierse, Franz Thönnes, Uta Titze-Stecher, Adelheid Tröscher, Hans-Eberhard Urbaniak, Rüdiger Veit, Siegfried Vergin, Günter Verheugen, Karsten D. Voigt (Frankfurt), Simone Violka, Ute Vogt (Pforzheim), Hans Georg Wagner, Hedi Wegener, Dr. Konstanze Wegner, Wolfgang Weiermann, Reinhard Weis (Stendal), Matthias Weisheit, Gunter Weißgerber, Gert Weisskirchen (Wiesloch), Dr. Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker, Hans-Joachim Welt, Dr. Rainer Wend, Hildegard Wester, Lydia Westrich, Inge Wettig-Danielmeier, Dr. Margrit Wetzel, Dr. Norbert Wieczorek, Helmut Wieczorek (Duisburg), Jürgen Wieczorek (Leipzig), Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, Dieter Wiefelspütz, Heino Wiese (Hannover), Klaus Wiesehügel, Brigitte Wimmer (Karlsruhe), Engelbert Wistuba, Barbara Wittig, Dr. Wolfgang Wodarg, Verena Wohlleben, Hanna Wolf (München), Waltraud Wolff (Zielitz), Heidemarie Wright, Uta Zapf, Dr. Christoph Zöpel, Peter Zumkley,
MPs of the Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union
Ulrich Adam, Ilse Aigner, Peter Altmaier, Anneliese Augustin, Jürgen Augustinowitz, Dietrich Austermann, Franz Peter Basten, Norbert Barthle, Dr. Wolf Bauer, Günter Baumann, Brigitte Baumeister, Meinrad Belle, Dr. Sabine Bergmann-Pohl, Otto Bernhardt, Hans-Dirk Bierling, Dr. Joseph-Theodor Blank, Renate Blank, Dr. Heribert Blens, Peter Bleser, Dr. Norbert Blüm, Friedrich Bohl, Dr. Maria Böhmer, Sylvia Bonitz, Jochen Borchert, Wolfgang Börnsen (Bönstrup), Wolfgang Bosbach, Dr. Wolfgang Bötsch, Klaus Brähmig, Dr. Ralf Brauksiepe, Paul Breuer, Georg Brunnhuber, Klaus Bühler (Bruchsal), Hartmut Büttner (Schönebeck), Dankward Buwitt, Peter Harry Carstensen (Nordstrand), Cajus Caesar, Leo Dautzenberg, Wolfgang Dehnel, Hubert Deittert, Gertrud Dempwolf, Albert Deß, Renate Diemers, Wilhelm Dietzel, Thomas Dörflinger, Werner Dörflinger, Marie-Luise Dött, Dr. Alfred Dregger, Maria Eichhorn, Wolfgang Engelmann, Rainer Eppelmann, Anke Eymer, Ilse Falk, Dr. Hans Georg Faust, IJochen Feilcke, Ulf Fink, Ingrid Fischbach, Axel Fischer (Karlsruhe-Land), Dirk Fischer (Hamburg), Leni Fischer (Unna), Herbert Frankenhauser, Dr. Gerhard Friedrich (Erlangen), Dr. Hans-Peter Friedrich (Naila), Erich G. Fritz, Jochen-Konrad Fromme, Hans-Joachim Fuchtel, Dr. Jürgen Gehb, Norbert Geis, Dr. Heiner Geißler, Georg Girisch, Michael Glos, Wilma Glücklich, Dr. Reinhard Göhner, Peter Götz, Dr. Wolfgang Götzer, Joachim Gres, Kurt-Dieter Grill, Hermann Gröhe, Claus-Peter Grotz, Manfred Grund, Horst Günther (Duisburg), Carl-Detlev Freiherr von Hammerstein, Gottfried Haschke (Großhennersdorf), Gerda Hasselfeldt, Norbert Hauser (Bonn), Hansgeorg Hauser (Rednitzhembach), Otto Hauser (Esslingen), Klaus-Jürgen Hedrich, Helmut Heiderich, Ursula Heinen, Manfred Heise, Siegfried Helias, Dr. Renate Hellwig, Hans Jochen Henke, Ernst Hinsken, Peter Hintze, Klaus Hofbauer, Martin Hohmann, Klaus Holetschek, Josef Hollerith, Elke Holzapfel, Dr. Karl-Heinz Hornhues, Siegfried Hornung, Joachim Hörster, Hubert Hüppe, Peter Jacoby, Susanne Jaffke, Georg Janovsky, Helmut Jawurek, Dr. Dionys Jobst, Dr.-Ing. Rainer Jork, Michael Jung (Limburg), Ulrich Junghanns, Dr. Egon Jüttner, Dr. Harald Kahl, Bartholomäus Kalb, Steffen Kampeter, Dr. Dietmar Kansy, Manfred Kanther, Irmgard Karwatzki, Volker Kauder, Eckart von Klaeden, Ulrich Klinkert, Dr. Helmut Kohl, Hans-Ulrich Köhler (Hainspitz), Manfred Kolbe, Norbert Königshofen, Eva-Maria Kors, Hartmut Koschyk, Manfred Koslowski, Thomas Kossendey, Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer, Rudolf Kraus, Wolfgang Krause (Dessau), Andreas Krautscheid, Arnulf Kriedner, Dr. Martina Krogmann, Dr. Paul Krüger, Dr. Hermann Kues, Werner Kuhn, Karl Lamers, Dr. Karl A. Lamers (Heidelberg), Dr. Norbert Lammert, Helmut Johannes Lamp, Armin Laschet, Herbert Lattmann, Dr. Paul Laufs, Karl-Josef Laumann, Vera Lengsfeld, Werner Lensing, Peter Letzgus, Ursula Lietz, Editha Limbach, Walter Link (Diepholz), Eduard Lintner, Dr. Klaus Lippold (Offenbach), Dr. Manfred Lischewski, Wolfgang Lohmann (Lüdenscheid), Julius Louven, Sigrun Löwisch, Heinrich Lummer, Dr. Michael Luther, Erich Maaß (Wilhelmshaven), Dr. Dietrich Mahlo, Erwin Marschewski, Günter Marten, Dr. Martin Mayer (Siegertsbrunn), Wolfgang Meckelburg, Rudolf Meinl, Dr. Michael Meister, Dr. Angela Merkel, Friedrich Merz, Rudolf Meyer (Winsen), Hans Michelbach, Meinolf Michels, Dr. Gerd Müller, Bernward Müller (Jena), Elmar Müller (Kirchheim), Engelbert Nelle, Bernd Neumann (Bremen), Johannes Nitsch, Claudia Nolte, Günter Nooke, Franz Obermeier, Dr. Rolf Olderog, Friedhelm Ost, Eduard Oswald, Norbert Otto (Erfurt), Dr. Gerhard Päselt, Dr. Peter Paziorek, Hans-Wilhelm Pesch, Ulrich Petzold, Anton Pfeifer, Dr. Friedbert Pflüger, Beatrix Philipp, Dr. Winfried Pinger, Ronald Pofalla, Dr. Hermann Pohler, Ruprecht Polenz, Marlies Pretzlaff, Dr. Albert Probst, Dr. Bernd Protzner, Dieter Pützhofen, Hans Raidel, Dr. Peter Ramsauer, Peter Rauen, Otto Regenspurger, Christa Reichard (Dresden), Klaus Dieter Reichardt (Mannheim), Erika Reinhardt, Hans-Peter Repnik, Dr. Norbert Rieder, Klaus Riegert, Dr. Heinz Riesenhuber, Franz Romer, Hannelore Rönsch (Wiesbaden), Heinrich-Wilhelm Ronsöhr, Dr. Klaus Rose, Kurt Rossmanith, Adolf Roth (Gießen), Norbert Röttgen, Dr. Christian Ruck, Volker Rühe, Dr. Jürgen Rüttgers, Roland Sauer (Stuttgart), Anita Schäfer, Ortrun Schätzle, Dr. Wolfgang Schäuble, Hartmut Schauerte, Norbert Schindler, Ulrich Schmalz, Heinz Schemken, Karl-Heinz Scherhag, Gerhard Scheu, Dietmar Schlee, Bernd Schmidbauer, Andreas Schmidt (Mühlheim), Christian Schmidt (Fürth), Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schmidt (Halsbrücke), Hans-Otto Schmiedeberg, Michael von Schmude, Birgit Schnieber-Jastram, Dr. Andreas Schockenhoff, Dr. Rupert Scholz, Reinhard Freiherr von Schorlemer, Dr. Erika Schuchardt, Wolfgang Schulhoff, Dr. Dieter Schulte (Schwäbisch Gmünd), Gerhard Schulz (Leipzig), Frederik Schulze (Sangershausen), Diethard W. Schütze (Berlin), Clemens Schwalbe, Dr. Christian Schwarz-Schilling, Wilhelm Josef Sebastian, Horst Seehofer, Marion Seib, Heinz Seiffert, Rudolf Seiters, Johannes Selle, Bernd Siebert, Werner Siemann, Jürgen Sikora, Johannes Singhammer, Bärbel Sothmann, Margarete Späte, Carl-Dieter Spranger, Wolfgang Steiger, Erika Steinbach, Dr. Wolfgang Freiherr von Stetten, Dr. Gerhard Stoltenberg, Andreas Storm, Dorothea Störr-Ritter, Max Straubinger, Matthäus Strebl, Thomas Strobl, Michael Stübgen, Egon Susset, Dr. Rita Süssmuth, Dr. Susanne Tiemann, Gottfried Tröger, Dr. Klaus-Dieter Uelhoff, Dr. Hans-Peter Uh,l Gunnar Uldall, Arnold Vaatz, Angelika Volquartz, Andrea Voßhoff, Dr. Horst Waffenschmidt, Dr. Theodor Waigel, Alois Graf von Waldburg-Zeil, Peter Weiß (Emmendingen), Gerald Weiß (Groß-Gerau), Kersten Wetzel, Annette Widmann-Mauz, Heinz Wiese (Ehingen), Hans-Otto Wilhelm (Mainz), Klaus-Peter Willsch, Matthias Wissmann, Werner Wittlich, Dr. Fritz Wittmann, Dagmar Wöhrl, Elke Wülfing, Peter Kurt Würzbach, Cornelia Yzer, Wolfgang Zeitlmann, Benno Zierer, Wolfgang Zöller,
MPs of the Alliance 90/ The Greens
Elisabeth Altmann (Pommelsbrunn), Marieluise Beck (Bremen), Volker Beck (Köln), Angelika Beer, Matthias Berninger, Ekin Deligöz, Dr. Thea Dückert, Franziska Eichstädt-Bohlig, Dr. Uschi Eid, Hans-Josef Fell, Andrea Fischer (Berlin), Joseph Fischer (Frankfurt), Katrin Göring-Eckardt, Rita Grießhaber, Winfried Hermann, Antje Hermenau, Kristin Heyne, Uli Höfken, Ulrike Höfken, Michaele Hustedt, Dr. Manuel Kiper, Dr. Angelika Köster-Loßack, Dr. Helmut Lippelt, Dr. Reinhard Loske, Oswald Metzger, Klaus Wolfgang Müller (Kiel), Kerstin Müller (Köln), Winfried Nachtwei, Christa Nickels, Egbert Nitsch (Rendsburg), Cem Özdemir, Gerd Poppe, Simone Probst, Christine Scheel, Rezzo Schlauch, Albert Schmidt (Hitzhofen), Wolfgang Schmitt (Langenfeld), Waltraud Schoppe, Werner Schulz (Leipzig), Christian Sterzing, Jürgen Trittin, Dr. Antje Vollmer, Ludger Volmer, Sylvia Ingeborg Voß, Helmut Wilhelm (Amberg), Margareta Wolf (Frankfurt),
MPs of the Free Democratic Party
Ina Albowitz, Dr. Gisela Babel, Hildebrecht Braun (Augsburg), Rainer Brüderle, Ernst Burgbacher, Jörg van Essen, Dr. Olaf Feldmann, Ulrike Flach, Paul K. Friedhoff, Horst Friedrich (Bayreuth), Rainer Funke, Dr. Wolfgang Gerhardt, Hans-Michael Goldmann, Dr. Karlheinz Guttmacher, Klaus Haupt, Dr. Helmut Haussmann, Ulrich Heinrich, Walter Hirche, Birgit Homburger, Dr. Werner Hoyer, Ulrich Irmer, Dr. Klaus Kinkel, Detlef Kleinert (Hannover), Roland Kohn, Dr. Heinrich Kolb, Jürgen Koppelin, Dr.-Ing. Karl-Hans Laermann, Ina Lenke, Uwe Lühr, Jürgen W. Möllemann, Dirk Niebel, Günther Friedrich Nolting, Hans-Joachim Otto (Frankfurt), Detlef Parr, Lisa Peters, Cornelia Pieper, Dr. Günter Rexrodt, Dr. Klaus Röhl, Dr. Edzard Schmidt-Jortzig, Gerhard Schüßler, Dr. Irmgard Schwaetzer, Marita Sehn, Dr. Hermann Otto Solms, Carl-Ludwig Thiele, Dr. Dieter Thomae, Jürgen Türk, Dr. Wolfgang Weng (Gerlingen), Dr. Guido Westerwelle;
3. the commanding functionaries of NATO,
Secretary General, Javier Solana, Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Gen. Wesley K. Clark, Commander Allied Air Forces, Lt. Gen. Michael C. Short and the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, Gen. Klaus Naumann;
4. The commanding functionaries of the German military (Bundeswehr),
Air Force Inspector Gen. Rolf Portz and the deployed air squadron commander, Col. Jochen Both und Col. Peter Schelzig.
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